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Routing on the Channel Dependency Graph:

A New Approach to Deadlock-Free, Destination-Based, High-Performance Routing for Lossless Interconnection Networks

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Kurzfassung in Englisch

In the pursuit for ever-increasing compute power, and with Moore's law slowly coming to an end, high-performance computing started to scale-out to larger systems. Alongside the increasing system size, the interconnection network is growing to accommodate and connect tens of thousands of compute nodes. These networks have a large influence on total cost, application performance, energy consumption, and overall system efficiency of the supercomputer. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art routing algorithms, which define the packet paths through the network, do not utilize this important resource efficiently. Topology-aware routing algorithms become increasingly inapplicable, due to irregular topologies, which either are irregular by design, or most often a result of hardware failures. Exchanging faulty network components potentially requires whole system downtime further increasing the cost of the failure. This management approach becomes more and more impractical due to the scale of today's networks and the accompanying steady decrease of the mean time between failures. Alternative methods of operating and maintaining these high-performance interconnects, both in terms of hardware- and software-management, are necessary to mitigate negative effects experienced by scientific applications executed on the supercomputer. However, existing topology-agnostic routing algorithms either suffer from poor load balancing or are not bounded in the number of virtual channels needed to resolve deadlocks in the routing tables.

Using the fail-in-place strategy, a well-established method for storage systems to repair only critical component failures, is a feasible solution for current and future HPC interconnects as well as other large-scale installations such as data center networks. Although, an appropriate combination of topology and routing algorithm is required to minimize the throughput degradation for the entire system. This thesis contributes a network simulation toolchain to facilitate the process of finding a suitable combination, either during system design or while it is in operation. On top of this foundation, a key contribution is a novel scheduling-aware routing, which reduces fault-induced throughput degradation while improving overall network utilization. The scheduling-aware routing performs frequent property preserving routing updates to optimize the path balancing for simultaneously running batch jobs. The increased deployment of lossless interconnection networks, in conjunction with fail-in-place modes of operation and topology-agnostic, scheduling-aware routing algorithms, necessitates new solutions to solve the routing-deadlock problem. Therefore, this thesis further advances the state-of-the-art by introducing a novel concept of routing on the channel dependency graph, which allows the design of an universally applicable destination-based routing capable of optimizing the path balancing without exceeding a given number of virtual channels, which are a common hardware limitation. This disruptive innovation enables implicit deadlock-avoidance during path calculation, instead of solving both problems separately as all previous solutions.

weitere Metadaten

Netzwerkmanagement, Routing, Hochleistungsrechnen, Blockierungsfrei
high performance computing, network management, routing protocols, deadlock-free, virtual channels, unicast, network simulations, fail-in-place, fault tolerance
DDC Klassifikation004
RVK KlassifikationST 200
HochschuleTechnische Universität Dresden
FakultätFakultät Informatik
ProfessurProfessur für Rechnerarchitektur
BetreuerProf. Dr. rer. nat. Wolfgang E. Nagel
GutachterProf. Dr. rer. nat. Wolfgang E. Nagel
Professor, PhD, Tor Skeie
Tag d. Einreichung (bei der Fakultät)30.03.2017
Tag d. Verteidigung / Kolloquiums / Prüfung16.06.2017
Veröffentlichungsdatum (online)20.06.2017
persistente URNurn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-225902

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