Christina Eisfelder

Modelling Net Primary Productivity and Above-Ground Biomass for Mapping of Spatial Biomass Distribution in Kazakhstan

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Kurzfassung in Englisch

Biomass is an important ecological variable for understanding the responses of vegetation to the currently observed global change. The impact of changes in vegetation biomass on the global ecosystem is also of high relevance. The vegetation in the arid and semi-arid environments of Kazakhstan is expected to be affected particularly strongly by future climate change. Therefore, it is of great interest to observe large-scale vegetation dynamics and biomass distribution in Kazakhstan.

At the beginning of this dissertation, previous research activities and remote-sensing-based methods for biomass estimation in semi-arid regions have been comprehensively reviewed for the first time. The review revealed that the biggest challenge is the transferability of methods in time and space. Empirical approaches, which are predominantly applied, proved to be hardly transferable. Remote-sensing-based Net Primary Productivity (NPP) models, on the other hand, allow for regional to continental modelling of NPP time-series and are potentially transferable to new regions.

This thesis thus deals with modelling and analysis of NPP time-series for Kazakhstan and presents a methodological concept for derivation of above-ground biomass estimates based on NPP data. For validation of the results, biomass field data were collected in three study areas in Kazakhstan. For the selection of an appropriate model, two remote-sensing-based NPP models were applied to a study area in Central Kazakhstan. The first is the Regional Biomass Model (RBM). The second is the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology Model (BETHY/DLR). Both models were applied to Kazakhstan for the first time in this dissertation. Differences in the modelling approaches, intermediate products, and calculated NPP, as well as their temporal characteristics were analysed and discussed.

The model BETHY/DLR was then used to calculate NPP for Kazakhstan for 2003–2011. The results were analysed regarding spatial, intra-annual, and inter-annual variations. In addition, the correlation between NPP and meteorological parameters was analysed. In the last part of this dissertation, a methodological concept for derivation of above-ground biomass estimates of natural vegetation from NPP time-series has been developed. The concept is based on the NPP time-series, information about fractional cover of herbaceous and woody vegetation, and plants’ relative growth rates (RGRs). It has been the first time that these parameters are combined for biomass estimation in semi-arid regions. The developed approach was finally applied to estimate biomass for the three study areas in Kazakhstan and validated with field data.

The results of this dissertation provide information about the vegetation dynamics in Kazakhstan for 2003–2011. This is valuable information for a sustainable land management and the identification of regions that are potentially affected by a changing climate. Furthermore, a methodological concept for the estimation of biomass based on NPP time-series is presented. The developed method is potentially transferable. Providing that the required information regarding vegetation distribution and fractional cover is available, the method will allow for repeated and large-area biomass estimation for natural vegetation in Kazakhstan and other semi-arid environments.

weitere Metadaten

Schlagwörter
(Deutsch)
Nettoprimärproduktion, NPP, Biomasse, Modellierung, Fernerkundung, Kartierung, Kasachstan, arid, semiarid
Schlagwörter
(Englisch)
Net primary productivity, NPP, biomass, modeling, remote sensing, mapping, Kazakhstan, arid, semi-arid
DDC Klassifikation710
RVK KlassifikationAR 12450, AR 35910
Institution(en) 
HochschuleTechnische Universität Dresden
FakultätFakultät Umweltwissenschaften
ProfessurProfessur für Kartographie
GutachterProf. Dr. Manfred F. Buchroithner
Prof. Dr. Stefan Dech
Prof. Dr. Martin Kappas
DokumententypDissertation
SpracheEnglisch
Tag d. Einreichung (bei der Fakultät)20.12.2012
Tag d. Verteidigung / Kolloquiums / Prüfung20.06.2013
Veröffentlichungsdatum (online)21.08.2013
persistente URNurn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-119964

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